Gemstones are minerals, rocks or organic matter that have been cut, polished and then fashioned into a piece of jewelry. In the 1800s, these gemstones were divided into two categories. Precious and semi precious stones considering their value differentiation at that time. Nowadays, the categorization is not always correct since the « Value » parameter is not the only criteria on which experts rely to in order to evaluate a stone. The quality, the rarity, the provenance are to be taken into consideration.

𝕯𝖎𝖆𝖒𝖔𝖓𝖉

Diamond is a solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic. At room temperature and pressure, another solid form of carbon known as graphite is the chemically stable form of carbon, but diamond almost never converts to it.

𝕽𝖚𝖇𝖞

A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum. Other varieties of gem-quality corundum are called sapphires. Ruby is one of the traditional cardinal gems.

𝕰𝖒𝖊𝖗𝖆𝖑𝖉

Emerald is a gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl colored green by trace amounts of chromium and/or sometimes vanadium. Beryl has a hardness of 7.5–8 on the Mohs scale. Most emeralds are highly included, so their toughness is classified as generally poor. Emerald is a cyclosilicate.

𝕾𝖆𝖕𝖕𝖍𝖎𝖗𝖊

Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, consisting of aluminium oxide with trace amounts of elements such as iron, titanium, chromium, vanadium, or magnesium.